Semnan is one of the cities of Iran located in the south of the Alborz Mountains. The city has beautiful historic attractions along with natural attractions. Semnan is one of the cities which has an interesting history. One worth telling.
Semnan is bound from the east to the cities of Damghan and Shahrud, from north to Dergizin, Mahdishahr, and Shahmirzad, and from the west to Sorkha. Its distance from Tehran is 216 km and it is connected to the Tehran-Mashhad railway and has two airports. Semnan is the most populous city in Semnan province. The climate of Semnan is dry and moderate, and its people are Aryan and speak Persian.
Semnan has 7 old famous neighborhoods. These neighborhoods are Sanjana (Sanjana), Latibar or Sister, Hajj or current Jihad, Nassar, Zavagan, Kush Mahan, Kadivar, Omranko, and Malhi.
There are mines of gypsum, salt, zeolite, bentonite, celestine around the city. One of the most important sources of underground resources in Semnan is the oil wells of Khourian Dalazian in the south of the city. The minerals found in these mines are: gypsum, salt, iron ore, carcasses, limestone, ornamental stones, porcelain, coal, sodium sulfate, mica, bentonite, zeolite, kaolin, bukist, industrial soil, silica, dolomite, feldspar, Turquoise, Celestine, lead, marble, travertine, fluorine and manganese.
Semnan has been the Iranian Space Center since the beginning of 1971. The aerospace industry is located 45 kilometers south-east of Semnan, it has an air base and also 80 kilometers south-east of the city there is a space base that launched the Hope satellite and other long-range missiles. Since 2008, the road leading to the air base has been named Hope Boulevard. Also, the Semnan Space Base is called the Imam Khomeini Space Base since May 15, 2012.
Semnan’s congregation is considered to be a very old and monumental building in the city. Over time, there have been many changes done to the place, but today there are works from the Seljuk and Timurid periods on display. The researchers believe that the mosque was built in the first century AH on the ruins of a fire temple. The mosque has had great value and credibility in history from a religious, cultural and social perspective. The architectural style of this building conforms to the style of Azeri architecture.
Forty Girls tower
Forty Girls tower: In the middle of the Hakim Allahi Street and on the way to Mahalt Salat, there is an ancient, semi-ruined old tower, called the tower of forty girls or simply “forty girls”. People believe that the tower was made by forty girls who had deprived themselves of worldly attributes. The fire temple dates back to a time before Islam.
Semnan’s Seljuk Minaret
Semnan’s Seljuk Minaret: This minaret, which is one of the most beautiful Seljuk periodic minarets, is located in the northeastern corner of the congregation, next to the underground shrine. It is also known as the Minaret of the congregation. The height of the minaret is around 31.20 meters and the width is considered to be around 25.75 meters. The underground shrine is 5.5 meters from the minaret and due to that, the lower part is not visible. The surrounding area of the mosque’s adjacent minaret is more than five meters.
The tomb of Pir Najm Al-din
The tomb of Pir Najm Al-din: This tomb belongs to Pir Najm al-Din Dadbakhsh just as the name suggests. There is no record regarding this individual’s background but he is considered to be one of the national commanders during the Mongol invasion.The tomb is considered to be one of the works from the Mongol period, it includes a porch, shrine, and a dome. Due to the fact that it is located on the street right now, there is no space regarded as a yard in the tomb.
Saro castles: 10 km north-east of Semnan, at the mountainous point named Saro, there are two very strong and intrusive castles that are remarkable in their own way and worthy of research. These castles are located on either side of Kalateh or Saro Farm.
The northern castle has been somewhat ruined and uninhabited due to the passage of time and occurrence of natural disasters and sabotage to some extent, but the structure stands strong.
Koushmagan castle: Three kilometers to the west of Semnan there are three neighborhoods known as Koushmagan, Zahavan, and Kadivar, and the sum of these three neighborhoods is called the Mahallat neighborhoods.
According to the information provided, these neighborhoods are considered as the most ancient neighborhoods in Semnan. The name Kushmaghan was originally Kushk Meghan, but over time it became known as Kushmaghan.
Shah Abbasi Caravanserai
Shah Abbasi Caravanserai: In Professor Motahari Street near the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps of Semnan, there is a caravanserai from the Safavid period, known as Robot Shah Abbasi. The courtyard is rectangular in with a length of 32.30 meters and a width of 26.5 meters.
The two northern and southern sides of the caravanserai have two equal porosities and they are similar to a curved arch, on each side of the porches, there are six small porches with curved arches that are as high as half a meter above the courtyard.
Darband Cave: The largest cave in the province, located 21 km north of Semnan and three kilometers south of Shahmirzad, overlooking Darband valley. This cave is located in the middle of a beautiful rocky mountain called LaHood, the wide and lush valley of Darband is widespread below it.
The entrance of the cave is 75.2 meters in width and 1.35 in height. The interior of the cave is relatively simple and without complexity. The cave’s space is oval shaped, with a length of 91 meters, the widest part of which is 36 meters and the tallest point, the roof is 20 meters.
Parvar Reservation Area
Parvar Reservation Area: This area is located north of Semnan city and has an area of 37 thousand hectares. Major animals in this area include Partridge, Caspian snowcock, See-see Partridge, Sandgrouse, Cheetah, Wolf, Jackal, Wild goat, Panther, Bear, Pig, Red deer, and Marten. The hunting season in this area is between October and late December.
Imam Khomeini mosque
Imam Khomeini mosque: This mosque (formerly Soltani) is located in the center of Semnan and is one of the most important and beautiful monuments of Semnan. The mosque has four large entrances from the north, and northwest. In the northwest, it opens to a long corridor, which is at the bottom of the lane.
The doors to the north, south, and east have vestibule corridors and corridors. On top of the northern and eastern gardens, there are a beautiful gypsum mogarnas decorated with two tiled two-story chairs on each side. In the northern, southeastern, and eastern oysters, dome bricks are observed with numerous pavilions with a tiled lacquer.
Semnan Market: This market was built about 180 years ago, during the reign of the Qajar dynasty. The market was built in traditional Iranian architecture with brick, and brick ceilings tailored to the specific weather conditions of the desert region. it is the largest shopping center for commercial goods. In the past, the general market of the city was considered to be the Sheikh Ala’d al-Dawlah market.
Nassar Bath: This bath is located in the market. It is about three centuries old and is one of the buildings from the Safavid period. This building was built in 1118 AH during the reign of Shah Abbas by Haji al-Haramin Aqa Maleki.
Shur Ab mineral water spring
Shur Ab mineral water spring: The spring water is from a series of aqueducts located in the northwest of Sorkheh. People in the summer go there by driving along the route five kilometers from the city of Sorkheh to the site of the Shahab aqueduct.
This water is rich in sulfur. It is used to treat headaches and aching eyes and one cannot stay in long since the gases released are somewhat toxic.