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In the list of Iranian gardens that are known in the world, we have chosen to talk about Dolat-abad garden in Yazd, that entails the greenery of the trees, the sound of the water and the beautiful passage of tidal streams. This spectacular garden, which has an amazing wind turbine, has been around since the Afsharid dynasty. We want to tell you about the history of the Garden and take you on a historic journey. We start with the architecture; then, we examine it a few times and consider each of its parts. Follow us as we embark on this journey.

Dolat-Abad garden

One of 9 Iranian gardens that have been named in the UNESCO World Heritage List and have international reputation. This garden has the world’s tallest windmill, and architecturally it is quite unique. In the eye-catching area of ​​the garden and the old building itself, there is a traditional café that is simply amazing. The beautiful and stunning nights in this garden are waiting for you. It is one of the most beautiful and historical buildings in Yazd.

A Cool breeze in the desert city

Inside the city of Yazd, which is embraced by the sun, there is a delightful atmosphere that diverts you from the city and its bustle. In Dolat-Abad garden Boulevard, there is a sign which shows you the entrance to the garden. When you arrive, you must go past a beautiful vestibule that caresses your soul with traditional Iranian architecture and also a handicraft booth which is hard to miss. When you step in you can see that there is a wind tower at the end of the passage.

Dolat-Abad garden is one of the oldest Persian gardens which goes back to more than 260 years ago. In each corner of the 6.4-hectare area, you can see something new and fascinating. Grape, cedar and pine trees are seen everywhere, and in the spring the smell of Damask roses is in the air.

From the trees and from the waterway to the famous building of the garden, which has the tallest windmill in the world, it is indeed the best of Iranian architecture all gathered into one complex.

But this is only just a superficial look at this amazing place. You need to know about this garden in order to understand how architects used their craft to create such gardens in this desert city.

History of the Dolat-Abad garden

At the time of Afsharid dynasty, Mohammad Taqi Khan Bafqi, who was called the Grand Khan, held the title of ruler and governor of Yazd. He was the leader of the Khavanin family, the father of Abdul Razakhan Yazdi (the next ruler of Yazd) and distant relative of Ahmad Sultan Ali Khan, known as Minister Afkham (Qajar minister) and Afkhm Ebrahimi and Afkhami families.

In 1160 AH, he founded a garden at the end of the Afsharid period. The garden was later used as the residence of contemporary rulers such as Shahrokh Mirza and Karim Khan Zand. During the Zand dynasty, this building was known as an eye-catching phenomenon known as the eight Gardens of Dowlat Abad and the rest is history.

At the time of Muhammad Taqi Khan the garden was considered outside of the jurisdiction of Yazd city and at that time there was a famous street at the northern end of the garden which had a lot of trees. The number of these trees was so great that they pretty much covered the whole garden and created a sort of unique space. The street was known as the thousand trees, it had 4 to 5 meters in length and extended more than 20 kilometers, all the way to Rahim Abad. The eastern side of the garden was limited to a street 8 km long and from the west the garden reached a dried up river.

With the expansion of the city during the Qajar period, this garden was connected to the Charminar (one of the gates of Yazd city) but was still outside the city limits. Over time, the city grew bigger and larger, filling the urban texture around the garden. During the Pahlavi era, with the expansion of construction in the suburbs, buildings were built around the garden, and gradually the garden itself became a part of Yazd city.

The deceased Mohammad Taghi Khan, at the end of his life, devoted the garden, its qanat and some of the lands that were irrigated by this aqueduct to The Fourteen Infallibles. He also gave a part of the land to his son.

The qanat was dedicated through a letter which reads:

No one is allowed to seize the water before it passes through the gardens, even if, for example, there is not much land left. That is if it’s necessary for the water to pass through somewhere else in order for it to reach the gardens itself, then permission is to be granted by the authority in charge and may God curse anyone who uses the water not for the benefit of the garden itself. The product is endowed to Imam Ali Mosque in Najaf.

This garden had long been the residence of Karim Khan Zand, and for some time in the Qajar period, Abdul Razakhan Yazdi, who was fighting with the Qajar princes used this place as his own. After the Qajar dynasty, the garden was abandoned for a while until from the year 1970 to 1986 where the Ministry of Culture of Iran rented it from the Department of Endowment and transferred it to the Ancient Heritage Office of the State at the time.

In 1970, the reconstruction of the garden was started, and parts of the complex consisted of the mirror hall mansion, staff’s mansion, the kitchens, Tehran mansion, the secluded section, water storage, the wind farm, and  Cedar mansion and Paradise manor were restored. Once again, during the years 1977 to 1983, gardening and landscaping operations took place in this historic garden, but these efforts have never managed to return it to its original state at the time of Mohammad Taqi Khan. Nowadays the garden is considered as a valuable heritage from Afsharid and Zand periods and is viewed as a spectacular attraction.

The Architecture

The design of the garden is one of the most original and most innovative woks in Iran. This garden includes four main buildings, three of which are vestibules, a hall and a hallway, they still exist along with part of the winter chambers, but the rest of the buildings and even their enclosures are gone and only 40,000 square meters of the entire garden remains.

The garden surface consists of two rectangular sections, one of which is 116 by 274 meters, and another 104 by 278 meters and they are perpendicular to each other. These two rectangles form two different sections of the Dolat-Abad garden, in other words, the interior and exterior of the garden, which we will discuss in the following.

Materials used in the construction of the
Dolat-Abad garden

Marble stones are the most important materials used in it. These rocks were brought here from Maragheh, which is very controversial because Yazd marble has always been famous for its quality and specialty, but it has not been used in this particular garden.

Various parts of the Dolat-Abad garden

Now it’s time to step into the different parts of it and get to know them:

The Interior

The larger rectangle is known as the garden itself, and in the whole collection it plays the role of the ornamental gardens that were basically used as a private garden and family home in the past. In this section we are faced with a passage or axis, which in fact is an internal line of symmetry, and various elements, such as beautiful trees, which are repeated on both sides. One passes through to the mansion and the other heads to the vestibules. The pool was built between the passages (according to the main axis) and is 194 by 12 meters. With this clever design, the water is exactly in the middle of the interior space and divides the garden into two symmetrical rectangular groves. This plotting is very unique and accurate, and it can be seen in accordance with architectural proportions. If we look at this with a keen eye we can see that this axis is drawn along the northwest – southwest and is 30 degrees proportional to the Western – Eastern axis.

In fact, the gardens are located at the beginning and end of this main axis and the trees are planted on both sides of it. The reasons for this structure are:

Creating a focal view toward the main building and the wind tower

Access to the garden landscape from the front and rear axles and their visual connection

Prolonging the garden

Different parts of the interior

The interior is composed of various structures such as:

The Vestibule

The most important structure in the Dolat-Abad garden is this one, located at the end of the main garden and connected to the southern wall. This vestibule is practically the main building of the Dolat-Abad garden, and combines the flow of air and water into the most beautiful shape. In this building wind and water are integrated into the pools and transfer the cool air from under the wind tower to the halls and rooms. Due to this kind of air cooling system, this building is known as the summer building.

The vestibule is a two-story building with a shape similar to an octagon. The gardens are located in a mosque-shaped dock with a rectangular door, a chamber, a vestibule, and two adjacent rooms. If you look at the ceiling, you can see a piece of artwork done in the most beautiful way possible, which is the work of Professor Haji Ali Akbar Akhund. The beauty of this floral pattern is its elaborate style. These kind of styles are commonly used in the local architecture, and are seen in numerous buildings in the city. The Sim-Gol is a mantle of sand, clay, crushed straw and a little bit of plaster, which is used for final finishes on surfaces. The Gypsum plaster, as its name suggests, works on the tails or edges, and is used for the final part of the decoration.

In addition to the decorations and delicacies, the use of curtains, colored glasses adds more beauty to this mansion. There is also a hall and porch on the upper floor of the mansion, which allows you to watch the beautiful garden.

The world’s tallest wind tower

The wind tower is on the vestibule and is considered to be the most significant symbol of Dolat-Abad garden. The tower has a height of 33.8 meters and it is the tallest one in the world.

The tower is octagonal and restressed and has a pond beneath it. This structure makes it possible for the tower to easily and quickly guide the wind to the bottom when it is blowing in any direction. The wind reaches the surface of the pool and cools the air from the stream. This blend of wind and cool water underneath the windpipe reaches other sections of the building, and keeps the cool breeze inside the complex.

Tanabi Hall

On the western side of the vestibule, a large and magnificent building called Tanabi is located, with a square wind tower just above it. On both sides of the hangar, halls, bars and nurseries are located in one floor, which runs through the gates and openings. Below this hall, there is a deep underground structure, which leads to the garden through two steps, and reaches the south by a corridor to the courtyard below.

The Winter Collection

The winter residence is in the Dolat-Abad garden and has been erected south of the gardens. This building is located right in front of the vestibule and is the border between the interior and the exterior. One side on the inside and one on the other side of the complex. A strip between the two buildings of the vestibule and this residence (also known as the mansion), formed along the center of the garden. In this parts of the garden some clovers have been planted and on both sides of this are a range of cherry and pomegranate trees.

Other interior sections

Except for the aforementioned sections, there are other spaces such as the harem, kitchen, staff chambers, summer and winter stables, a carriage house, a watchtower and private water storage.

The Exterior

The smaller rectangular area is located on the north side and forms the outer parts of the garden known as Jolo Khan. This garden is known as Beheshte Aiin, and it was once a place for the establishment of caravans, holding state ceremonies and sports events.

This section is made in such a way that its axis of symmetry is perpendicular to the main axis of the garden and a large rectangular pillar is also perpendicular to it. This pond divides the structure into two square sections that make up the gardens.

The mansion itself, which is located on the common border of two outer and inner gardens and has two floors. On the ground floor of the building, there is a room, a vestibule and a large room (facing east) and a few small rooms (facing the north and south) and a few corridors.

Except for the mansion, the mirror hall, Tehran mansion, the two markets, two watchtowers, water storage and other houses make up the garden.

Where does the water come from?

Water was the most important element for the construction of such a garden, and for this reason, at the beginning of the work and before the construction of the building, the great Khan built a 65-km-long aqueduct to transfer water from Mehriz to Yazd and the current location of the garden. The historical aqueduct is one of the most important and longest aqueducts in the city of Yazd, which has five disciplines and originates from Mehriz highlands. After digging the aqueduct and bringing water to the garden, a form of government or a domicile was established there. Buildings, ponds, waterfalls, pomegranate and grape trees and etc. One by one, they were added to the space to create one of the most eye-catching works in an area of ​​70,000 square meters. Of course in 1992, with the construction of a large street in the north of the garden, a large part of it was destroyed in order to build the boulevard.

The aqueduct is the main source of water supply for the garden, which played a major role in its green and refreshing display. During droughts they watered the Dolat-Abad garden and filled its numerous ponds using a well that was embedded in the eastern side of the garden and alongside the service building. Along with these resources, a water reservoir was also used to store water and use it in an emergency in the Dolat-Abad garden.

The water flow of this aqueduct went to the Dolat-Abad garden after watering part of the Mehriz land and deploying several water mills. It watered the trees and then continued on its way to water the agricultural lands around the garden. Today there is no sign of water in these aqueducts, and the water needed for the garden is only provided by a series of semi-deep wells.

Clever water flow in the Dolat-Abad garden

Water in this garden is displayed more than any other Iranian garden and it is used at all levels. In Dolat-Abad garden, we see the water drowning and its re-eruption in different parts, which is possible using architectural constructions.

In general, the following sections can be considered for the flow of water in the garden:

The visible route of the water

The hidden route of the water

The Pond and the Waterfalls

Under the wind tower of the vestibule, the first signs of water can be seen in a marble pond. Then, it goes through to the pool, and it reaches the mansion, and then proceeds to three rectangular ponds in the mansions.

The water reaches the outer edge of the rooms to continue its path. Sine-Kabki is one of the most ingenious techniques of Iranian architecture in gardens and it is referred to the use of lacquered rocks in the construction of the water way to reveal the wave of the water that passes through. In this particular garden the blocks are made of marble and are carved to create a wave and show the volume of water more than it actually is.

Water from the blocks is taken to a small dock called the Kalagi pond, and from there it leads itself into the gardens to create a magnificent show. The important thing about this waterfront is that it is exactly on the main axis of the garden and its dimensions are proportional to the height of the vestibules. This placement makes the image of this mansion fully reflective of the water and add to the beauty of it.

In the past, after watering down, the water was thrown into a gutter, which, unfortunately, is not seen today. After the water passes through, it goes towards the hallway and enters Beheshte Aiin, to a large 12-hectare pool in the north of the mansion. After this large pool, water flows into three rectangular pools in three other directions, and then goes to the streets and villages to meet the agricultural needs.

This water show represents only the creativity of the architect’s mind. The builder has not succumbed to the flow of water in the underground layers and watering the trees, and has created a master piece.

Applications of the Dolat-Abad garden

It is considered as a state-run and or private garden, and as we said, it consists of two parts:

The exterior garden serves as a venue for government ceremonies, sports events and city affairs.

The interior gardens are private & residential.

In these types of gardens, the interior section was built entirely different from the other parts, and it even had a guard on duty.

In terms of structure, Dolat-Abad garden can be considered a garden-yard, much like Qavam House and Haft Tanan Museum in Shiraz because the garden space is in the middle and the buildings and structures surround it.

National and Global Recognition

The historical value and architecture of Dolat-Abad garden led to it being named as a national heritage site on March 13, 1966, with the number 774. The garden is renowned globally. In 2011, Dolat-Abad garden as well as some other Iranian gardens were registered at the UNESCO World Heritage List and it included the following criteria for registration:

A masterpiece of human genius and creativity.

The exchange of human values ​​over a period of time and in a cultural region that is in the field of advancement in architecture or technology, urban planning, or landscape design.

The structure is unmatched or at least an exceptional one that confirms the existence of a cultural tradition or living or lost civilization.

An outstanding example of architecture or technology is an important stage in human history.

It directly relates to one or more issues of great global importance in these areas: events, traditions, thoughts and ideas, artwork, literary works.

The plants in the Dolat-Abad garden

The plants in Iranian gardens were generally used for three goals: creating shadows, harvesting and decorations. Shaded and productive trees formed a large part of the garden, flowers and ornamental plants were less contributing. This particular garden is no exception. As we said before, the garden has two sections, including a private part and one for ceremonies and sports. On the strip between the two buildings of the garden and in the center of the central axis, we have the clovers, and on both sides of the bar we see cherry and pomegranate trees. There are several other trees in the Dolat-Abad garden, most of which are cedar and pine. Grape tree is also planted inside the plots. Rose bushes are another part of it in abundance.

In 1970, the reconstruction of the garden was started, and parts of the complex consisted of the mirror hall mansion, staff’s mansion, the kitchens, Tehran mansion, the secluded section, water storage, the wind farm, and Cedar mansion and Paradise manor was restored. Once again, during the years 1977 to 1983, gardening and landscaping operations took place in this historic garden, but these efforts have never managed to return it to its original state at the time of Mohammad Taqi Khan. Nowadays the garden is considered as a valuable heritage from Afsharid and Zand periods and is viewed as a spectacular attraction.

The Architecture

The design of the garden is one of the most original and most innovative works in Iran. Dolat-Abad garden includes four main buildings, three of which are vestibules, a hall and a hallway, they still exist along with part of the winter chambers, but the rest of the buildings and even their enclosures are gone and only 40,000 square meters of the entire garden remains.
The garden surface consists of two rectangular sections, one of which is 116 by 274 meters, and another 104 by 278 meters and they are perpendicular to each other. These two rectangles form two different sections of the garden, in other words, the interior and exterior of the garden, which we will discuss in the following.
Materials used in the construction of the garden
Marble stones are the most important materials used in them. These rocks were brought here from Maragheh, which is very controversial because Yazd marble has always been famous for its quality and specialty, but it has not been used in this particular garden.
Various parts of the garden
Now it’s time to step into the different parts of it and get to know them:

The Interior

The wind tower is on the vestibule and is considered to be the most significant symbol of this garden. The tower has a height of 33.8 meters and it is the tallest one in the world.
The tower is octagonal and restressed and has a pond beneath it. This structure makes it possible for the tower to easily and quickly guide the wind to the bottom when it is blowing in any direction. The wind reaches the surface of the pool and cools the air from the stream. This blend of wind and cool water underneath the windpipe reaches other sections of the building and keeps the cool breeze inside the complex.

Other interior sections

Except for the aforementioned sections, there are other spaces such as the harem, kitchen, staff chambers, summer and winter stables, a carriage house, a watchtower, and private water storage.

The Exterior

The smaller rectangular area is located on the north side and forms the outer parts of the garden known as Jolo Khan. This garden is known as Beheshte Aiin, and it was once a place for the establishment of caravans, holding state ceremonies and sports events.
This section is made in such a way that its axis of symmetry is perpendicular to the main axis of the garden and a large rectangular pillar is also perpendicular to it. This pond divides the structure into two square sections that make up the gardens.
The mansion itself, which is located on the common border of two outer and inner gardens and has two floors. On the ground floor of the building, there is a room, a vestibule and a large room (facing east) and a few small rooms (facing the north and south) and a few corridors.
Except for the mansion, the mirror hall, Tehran mansion, the two markets, two watchtowers, water storage, and other houses make up the garden.
Where does the water come from?
Water was the most important element for the construction of such a garden, and for this reason, at the beginning of the work and before the construction of the building, the great Khan built a 65-km-long aqueduct to transfer water from Mehriz to Yazd and the current location of the garden. The historical aqueduct is one of the most important and longest aqueducts in the city of Yazd, which has five disciplines and originates from Mehriz highlands. After digging the aqueduct and bringing water to the garden, a form of government or a domicile was established there. Buildings, ponds, waterfalls, pomegranate and grape trees and etc. One by one, they were added to the space to create one of the most eye-catching works in an area of 70,000 square meters. Of course in 1992, with the construction of a large street in the north of the garden, a large part of it was destroyed in order to build the boulevard.
The aqueduct is the main source of water supply for the garden, which played a major role in its green and refreshing display. During droughts, they watered the garden and filled its numerous ponds using a well that was embedded in the eastern side of the garden and alongside the service building. Along with these resources, a water reservoir was also used to store water and use it in an emergency in the garden.
The water flow of this aqueduct went to the garden after watering part of the Mehriz land and deploying several water mills. It watered the trees and then continued on its way to water the agricultural lands around the garden. Today there is no sign of water in these aqueducts, and the water needed for the garden is only provided by a series of semi-deep wells.

Clever water flow in the Dolat-Abad garden

Water in this garden is displayed more than any other Iranian garden and it is used at all levels. In this garden, we see the water drowning and its re-eruption in different parts, which is possible using architectural constructions.
In general, the following sections can be considered for the flow of water in the garden:
The visible route of the water
The hidden route of the water
The Pond and the Waterfalls
Under the wind tower of the vestibule, the first signs of water can be seen in a marble pond. Then, it goes through to the pool, and it reaches the mansion and then proceeds to three rectangular ponds in the mansions.
The water reaches the outer edge of the rooms to continue its path. Sine-Kabki is one of the most ingenious techniques of Iranian architecture in gardens and it is referred to the use of lacquered rocks in the construction of the waterway to reveal the wave of the water that passes through. In this particular garden, the blocks are made of marble and are carved to create a wave and show the volume of water more than it actually is.
Water from the blocks is taken to a small dock called the Kalagi pond, and from there it leads itself into the gardens to create a magnificent show. The important thing about this waterfront is that it is exactly on the main axis of the garden and its dimensions are proportional to the height of the vestibules. This placement makes the image of this mansion fully reflective of the water and adds to the beauty of it.

In the past, after watering down, the water was thrown into a gutter, which, unfortunately, is not seen today. After the water passes through, it goes towards the hallway and enters Beheshte Aiin, to a large 12-hectare pool in the north of the mansion. After this large pool, water flows into three rectangular pools in three other directions and then goes to the streets and villages to meet the agricultural needs.
This water show represents only the creativity of the architect’s mind. The builder has not succumbed to the flow of water in the underground layers and watering the trees, and has created a masterpiece.

Applications of the Dolat-Abad garden

It is considered as a state-run and or private garden, and as we said, it consists of two parts:
The exterior garden serves as a venue for government ceremonies, sports events and city affairs.
The interior gardens are private & residential.
In these types of gardens, the interior section was built entirely different from the other parts, and it even had a guard on duty.
In terms of structure, Dowlat Abad can be considered a garden-yard, much like Qavam House and Haft Tanan Museum in Shiraz because the garden space is in the middle and the buildings and structures surrounding it.

National and Global Recognition

The historical value and architecture of this garden led to it being named as a national heritage site on March 13, 1966, with the number 774. The garden is renowned globally. In 2011, this garden, as well as some other Iranian gardens, were registered at the UNESCO World Heritage List and it included the following criteria for registration:
A masterpiece of human genius and creativity.
The exchange of human values over a period of time and in a cultural region that is in the field of advancement in architecture or technology, urban planning, or landscape design.
The structure is unmatched or at least an exceptional one that confirms the existence of a cultural tradition or living or lost civilization.
An outstanding example of architecture or technology is an important stage in human history.
It directly relates to one or more issues of great global importance in these areas: events, traditions, thoughts and ideas, artwork, literary works.

The plants in the Dolat-Abad garden

The plants in Iranian gardens were generally used for three goals: creating shadows, harvesting, and decorations. Shaded and productive trees formed a large part of the garden, flowers and ornamental plants were less contributing. This particular garden is no exception. As we said before, the garden has two sections, including a private part and one for ceremonies and sports. On the strip between the two buildings of the garden and in the center of the central axis, we have the clovers, and on both sides of the bar, we see cherry and pomegranate trees. There are several other trees in the garden, most of which are cedar and pine. The grape tree is also planted inside the plots. Rose bushes are another part of it in abundance.

Martian Mountains in Chabahar

The Martian mountains of Chabahar give an amazing view of Iran that evokes an image of planet Mars in one’s mind. The road leading you to the Martian Mountains is one of the most beautiful roads in Iran. Going to the Martian Mountains, you walk into an area that has a great reputation for its sky sight and offers a spectacular view. The presence of a tourist camp near these mountains makes it easy to stay comfortable and composed.
Did you know you can see planet Mars in Iran? Just come to the Chabahar Martian Mountains; a strange and wonderful place that invites you to a space trip. These mountains, which are also known as Miniature Mountains, are considered to be a tourist attraction. If you want to know what we mean by Martian mountains and what attraction we are talking about, come along with us and get to know everything about this attraction.

Martian Mountains

Pamenar Village

Pamenar Village is like a stretch between land and water and has a unique nature. Sheehan Lake (Dez Lake), with its small and big islands, has created a beautiful view alongside the village. By visiting this village, you can see the world’s fifth largest dam with beautiful attractions such as the Shadab Castle and its historic cemetery. Pamenar is considered to be a tourist attraction, one of many in this particular region.

We go to southern Iran and get 40 km outside of the beautiful city of Dezful, and take a road of green velvet hills in order to get to our destination. We are supposed to reach a village which covers 60 hectares of land, at the foot of a minaret that is steeped from hard and polished rocks of Zagros. In the village, there are no traditional houses, but there are simple houses with small porches, so in a way, it actually has some kind of a traditional feel to it.

The nature in this region is equal to heaven in that it drives you away from reality and makes you dizzy. If you go to the Pamenar Village in winter and stand beside the lake, migratory birds fly in front of you and you can witness the beauty of it firsthand.


Behind the village school, there is a host of white rocks that seem to be empty. Take your shoes off and walk over to reach a stone bed that serves as the border of the village. At night, if the sky is clear which it never is, you can see the town and its light. Pamenar Village is also the destination of people from the city of Dezful.

Amusements and sights in and around Pamenar Village

Sheehan Lake (Dez Dam)

Pamenar Village is located between the two Karkheh and Dez dams and this has caused the natural beauty of this area to be unique in all aspects. Dez Dam, also known as Sheehan Lake, is located north of Dezful and behind the mountains. The lake is artificially constructed on the river, which covers an area of over 6,000 hectares. The water originates from Aligudarz Mountains in Lorestan and Markazi province (Arak). The lake has varying depths in different parts but reaches 50 meters in its deepest.


Lake Sheehan has a number of small islands that give it a unique beauty. The largest lake is about 60,000 square meters. The islands are full of trees such as, Christ’s thorn jujube, Persian turpentine, Weeping willow, and Almond trees which are native to the area and are abundantly seen throughout the region. Small animals such as foxes and rabbits live on these islands along with birds such as See-see partridge and Partridge itself plus various seabirds. In some unknown parts of this particular region, leopards have also been seen.

Photography

Imagine the beautiful village with all its beauty in the middle of the day under the golden light of the sunset, without any exaggeration, it is dreamy, and it can be a perfect destination for those looking for the best scenery for photography. But everything does not end here! At night if the sky is clear, the blanket of the tiny stars can be another subject for taking pictures.

Castle’s Cemetery

Another spectacular attraction is the small cemetery located below the castle in this region. In this cemetery, there are standing stones and each one has been carved out to tell the story of the dead. They tell us of men and women who have come before and have passed in this particular land. Some were dancers, potters, farmers, and painters.

Shadab Castle

Next, to Pamenar Village, there is a smooth and polished sidewalk which goes on forever. It is located 30 km outside of Pamenar on the walls of the castle. The castle itself was built in the Sassanid era and covers an area of 12,000 square meters, but there is no accurate information about its use and features. It is said that during the first Pahlavi period and until the early ’30s this castle was a defensive wall against robbers and looters, and it was even residential until 25 years ago, but its usage changed over time, and now it is used as a sort of barn. The castle has been built in the heart of a mountain and it is comprised of multiple tunnels. These small halls and caves are called “Kat” in the local language.

Among the locals, the castle is considered as a place that legendary people once lived. The castle has two entrances, one of which is very hard and difficult to go through but the other one is very suitable for tourists and locals alike. It is said that the same harshness of the castle path has led to the victory of the people of this area against the looters. If you look down from above, you will see a magnificent convent that is created of almond trees and is an ideal place for adventure.

The best season for visiting the
Pamenar Village

Spring: In the spring, Pamenar is a paradise on earth, which makes it obligatory for everyone to see it, but if you want to see the beauty of it in its natural state be sure to come before April.
Summer: A trip to the south is not recommended in the summer; however, if you are so eager, you should be varied of the restless heart.
Autumn: In this season it is quite windy, but there is no longer any green and beautiful trees.
Winter: The best time to travel to Pamenar Village in winter is late in March.

Dez Dam and its benefits

It is a concrete dam built during the reign of Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi on the Dez River, located northeast of Andimeshk. The construction of the dam, which took place in collaboration with American and Italian companies, began in 1960 and ended in 1963. The dam, with a final capacity of 3.3 billion cubic meters, helps lower water levels and plays an important role in controlling its flooding. Dez dam with a height of 203 meters at its time of construction was known as the sixth and now 50th largest dam in the world.


The Dez River is one of the most prominent rivers in Iran. For decades, due to its high level of flooding, a dam was built to help the people of the region with the drought that was plaguing them. At the time of the construction of the dam, precise channels were carried out in cooperation with the Iran-California Company to ensure water that is behind the dam goes through the same channels to the fields, not only improving existing agricultural lands but also bringing about revival to another 240 hectares of various lands in this particular region.

Anzali Lagoon


Anzali Lagoon one of the most valuable natural attractions in Bandar-e Anzali city. This wetland is home to Indian lotus which is considered to be a unique flower. Boat riding and going to local restaurants around the lagoon can be quite fun. This wetland is the ultimate destination for rare and migratory birds.
We want to take you to the northern parts of the country and talk to you about the Anzali Lagoon, which shines on the southwest coast of the Caspian Sea. You will surely be tempted to see pictures of the Anzali Lagoon and hope that someday you get the chance to see it up close. It is beautiful but at the same time, the importance of it in the economy of the region is unparalleled.

Mazichal village

Mazichal village is the fog in the region and the spectacular clouds of this climate create a strange sort of daydream.
The forest is pristine, the mountains are strenuous, clouds thick, lush plains and colorful woods plus the mountain winds which are ever present. Sometimes the rain, in the pleasant silence of nature, makes you wonder as if you were part of nature itself.

Most people in Iran love the cities and villages in the northern parts of the country because of its beautiful nature, which is why most of the time they travel there. Although the number of these villages is so high that it is not possible to visit all of them.
Today, we plan to make a virtual trip to one of these villages and plan for a real trip to this beautiful, unique countryside.

Hawraman Village

Hawraman Village beautiful village has a spectacular architecture and design and it is located in the southeast of Kurdistan province.
The word Hawraman consists of two parts, “Ahura” and “Man”, meaning the land of Ahura.
The people were Zoroastrians before Islam came along, and the remnants of their fire temples are still visible in the region.
They speak “Hurami” which is an old dialect that is the symbol of pride and veracity for the people living in this village.
Their customs and rituals plus the unique music that they have combined with the excellent architecture of the village show the rich culture of this land.

Makhunik village

Makhunik village is famous for having people with short stature. Due to the architecture of this village, many stories and legends have been formed around it. Here you can get acquainted with the unique culture and lifestyle of the locals.
Throughout history, humans have made stories. That is why some people believed almost anything. This particular village is known as the Lilliput village, but in fact, it is a historical village that is 400 years old in the southern Khorasan province. Many people consider it as one of the seven most amazing villages in the world, and many people come here to see the little ones; but this is not the only reason for its reputation because there are other factors at work, such as the architecture of the houses and culture and customs of these people. We are going to uncover the mysteries and secrets of this particular village and get to know more about it.

Makhunik village is famous for having people with short stature. Due to the architecture of this village, many stories and legends have been formed around it. Here you can get acquainted with the unique culture and lifestyle of the locals.
Throughout history, humans have made stories. That is why some people believed almost anything. This particular village is known as the Lilliput village, but in fact, it is a historical village that is 400 years old in the southern Khorasan province. Many people consider it as one of the seven most amazing villages in the world, and many people come here to see the little ones; but this is not the only reason for its reputation because there are other factors at work, such as the architecture of the houses and culture and customs of these people. We are going to uncover the mysteries and secrets of this particular village and get to know more about it.

Kandovan Village

Kandovan Village is One of the few manmade cliff dwellings in the world where people still live the traditional life. The special atmosphere in the Village is mesmerizing, mostly because it is so archaic. People’s lifestyle in this particular village is different from many other villages in Iran. The climate, natural environment, and the mountainous environment is another reason to travel to this amazing village.
Due to the geographical condition of Iran, there is diversity in every aspect of life. The vegetation, animals, and climate alongside with architectural, agricultural and lifestyle aspects. The specific characteristics of each region have affected its architecture and construction, making the north, south, center and mountainous regions of Iran different in terms of shape in proportion to their surroundings. Of course, today, due to new architectural methods, most of the buildings in our country have become similar in appearance. The chaos of luxury houses, shopping malls, hotels, has spread to most of the cities in Iran but hearing that people are still living traditionally and without luxuries and glamor of today’s life is very strange and interesting.

Kandovan Village
We want to talk about a village that is spectacular and interesting in every aspect. Our destination is the historic Kandovan village; a vibrant exhibition of life among rocks and, the birthplace of man and nature, and the best example of companionship and simplicity.
East Azerbaijan province is full of wonders and attractions; from the monuments of Tabriz, Maragheh and Jolfa to the rivers, forests and mountainous forests that immerse the province in beauty and glory. Meanwhile, Kandovan has another story. A village in Osku County that goes back quite a lot, and a special architecture that makes it a wonder.
Kandovan village is located on the slopes of Mount Sultan Daghi, in the heart of Sahand mountain range. This village was created over time due to lava and molten materials left over from the volcanic eruptions of Sahand Mountain, and of course human interference. Kandovan is one of the few villages in Iran and the world, along with Cappadocia villages in Turkey, Dakota in the United States, and Meymand village in Kerman that have this particular form of architecture. However, today only the two villages of Meymand and Kandovan have residents, and the rest are mostly vacant. Kandovan has a height of 2,200 meters from the sea level, Kandovan River flows along the village and it is part of the Sahand Rural District.
Kandovan village was registered on the list of Iran’s national monuments due to its architecture and the lifestyle of its people with the registration number 1857, on May 15, 1997.

Kandovan Village

Shushtar Historical Hydraulic System

It is Iran’s 10th cultural heritage site which is also listed on UNESCO’s World Heritage Sites.
An island city that is considered to have the largest industrial complex irrigation system in the world, before the industrial revolution.
A work of art from the Achaemenid period.
The irrigation system is considered to be a masterpiece of engineering in the world, given that it was the first at that particular time. Iran has quite a lot of history, each special in its own. The Achaemenid period was particularly remembered for its focus on engineering and architecture. Most people think that Persepolis is the only thing left from the Achaemenid period but there are other historic sites that are just as fascinating.
This historical site is located in the south of Iran. Darius I is considered to be the founder of this island city. This astounding structure is located in Khuzestan province. The structure has stayed intact through all these years. Simply put it is a reminder of Iran’s rich history.

Shushtar
The site is easily reachable and well known in the area. it is a complex irrigation system that dates back to the era of Darius the Great and in 5th century BC.
The Achaemenes and Sassanids built a complex set of dams, barrages, water mills, waterfalls, canals, and tunnels to control the flow of the water in order to make more use of it.
Only some small parts of this complex structure have stood the test of time, but the water coming from the water mills have created beautiful artificial waterfalls that create amazing scenery within the city.
This complex system can be considered as a reminder of how intelligent people were in that time, and it shows that water engineering sciences were quite advanced in that time period. They closed off Karun River and at the same time built a dam over it. Then they managed to raise the surface of the water and level it while sending it to agricultural areas in the province. This was done more than 1700 years ago using the tools available in that time period. This was no easy task.

Shushtar

Citadel of Karim Khan

The citadel of Karim Khan is located in the north-east of Shiraz city. At that time Shiraz was Iran’s capital. It was built as a part of a complex and is named after Karim Khan, it served as his living quarters. In shape, it resembles a medieval fortress. Karim Khan invited the best architects and artists of the time and bought the best materials from other cities and abroad for the construction of the citadel which was quickly constructed.

Citadel of Karim Khan

During the Zand dynasty, Citadel of Karim Khan was used by the king as living quarters. During the Qajar era, it was used as the governor’s seat. The governor ordered the miniatures in the citadel to be renovated. After the fall of the Qajar dynasty, it was converted into a prison and the paintings were plastered over.

Citadel of Karim Khan

The Citadel of Karim Khan is in the center of a compound. It consists of four high walls. The walls are connected by four circular brick towers at a 90-degree angle. Recently, the southern tower has a noticeable lean. Inside the citadel lies the inner court with citrus trees. Each wall is three meters thick at the base and 2.8 meters at the top. The surface of the walls and towers are decorated with the brick in simple, geometric relief pattern which makes you think about design elements on the carpets and kilims. The design of the Citadel of Karim-khan combines military and residential architecture, for example, it was the home of Karim Khan and later on, it was a military center.
Today, this historical and beautiful place is a museum operated by Iran’s Cultural Heritage Organization.

Citadel of Karim Khan

Review by: Masoud Farhad