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Shushtar Historical Hydraulic System

It is Iran’s 10th cultural heritage site which is also listed on UNESCO’s World Heritage Sites.
An island city that is considered to have the largest industrial complex irrigation system in the world, before the industrial revolution.
A work of art from the Achaemenid period.
The irrigation system is considered to be a masterpiece of engineering in the world, given that it was the first at that particular time. Iran has quite a lot of history, each special in its own. The Achaemenid period was particularly remembered for its focus on engineering and architecture. Most people think that Persepolis is the only thing left from the Achaemenid period but there are other historic sites that are just as fascinating.
This historical site is located in the south of Iran. Darius I is considered to be the founder of this island city. This astounding structure is located in Khuzestan province. The structure has stayed intact through all these years. Simply put it is a reminder of Iran’s rich history.

Shushtar
The site is easily reachable and well known in the area. it is a complex irrigation system that dates back to the era of Darius the Great and in 5th century BC.
The Achaemenes and Sassanids built a complex set of dams, barrages, water mills, waterfalls, canals, and tunnels to control the flow of the water in order to make more use of it.
Only some small parts of this complex structure have stood the test of time, but the water coming from the water mills have created beautiful artificial waterfalls that create amazing scenery within the city.
This complex system can be considered as a reminder of how intelligent people were in that time, and it shows that water engineering sciences were quite advanced in that time period. They closed off Karun River and at the same time built a dam over it. Then they managed to raise the surface of the water and level it while sending it to agricultural areas in the province. This was done more than 1700 years ago using the tools available in that time period. This was no easy task.

Shushtar

Citadel of Karim Khan

The citadel of Karim Khan is located in the north-east of Shiraz city. At that time Shiraz was Iran’s capital. It was built as a part of a complex and is named after Karim Khan, it served as his living quarters. In shape, it resembles a medieval fortress. Karim Khan invited the best architects and artists of the time and bought the best materials from other cities and abroad for the construction of the citadel which was quickly constructed.

Citadel of Karim Khan

During the Zand dynasty, Citadel of Karim Khan was used by the king as living quarters. During the Qajar era, it was used as the governor’s seat. The governor ordered the miniatures in the citadel to be renovated. After the fall of the Qajar dynasty, it was converted into a prison and the paintings were plastered over.

Citadel of Karim Khan

The Citadel of Karim Khan is in the center of a compound. It consists of four high walls. The walls are connected by four circular brick towers at a 90-degree angle. Recently, the southern tower has a noticeable lean. Inside the citadel lies the inner court with citrus trees. Each wall is three meters thick at the base and 2.8 meters at the top. The surface of the walls and towers are decorated with the brick in simple, geometric relief pattern which makes you think about design elements on the carpets and kilims. The design of the Citadel of Karim-khan combines military and residential architecture, for example, it was the home of Karim Khan and later on, it was a military center.
Today, this historical and beautiful place is a museum operated by Iran’s Cultural Heritage Organization.

Citadel of Karim Khan

Review by: Masoud Farhad

Countryside Caravansaries

Numerous books have been written about caravansaries, introducing almost every specimen for a deeper, more accurate, understanding of the architecture of Iranian caravansaries. This text focuses on countryside caravansaries. Urban caravansaries, which often occur in combination with bazaars buildings. Countryside caravansaries are built beside desert roads and bear essential differences with urban ones as regards their architectural features, spatial organization, function and environment.

Iran countryside caravansaries
Iran’s location at the heart of the ancient world, as the major link between the orient and the occident. And made the travelling a highly important issue in this country. As powerful centralized government, economic prosperity and flourishing trade depend on safe and comfortable travelling, the Iranians soon come up with various solution in this domain. One such solution was to build and constantly maintain, a multitude of caravansaries throughout the country. Travelers have commented on the vital role of caravansaries and attested to the secure and restful abodes they had offered them against sandstorms, scorching desert heats, snow tempests and brigands.
Caravansaries were commissioned by rulers, governments and benevolent individuals. They were usually built beside busy roads, using locally available materials such as mud, raw bricks, fired bricks and stones, alone or in combination. Water was a vital element in a caravansary’s life and easy access to water played a major role in the choice of its site. A water cistern was built inside or nearby every caravansary.

Iran countryside caravansariesThey were simple and unpretentious buildings. Four long, tall, windowless walls and occasionally two towers in the middle of its long walls, gave the caravansary a fort-like appearance. The building’s only decorated exterior element was it’s distinguishing entrance. Walls had simple arcades. These arcades provided shaded platforms where passerby could rest for a while. At the center of the caravansary was the main courtyard, which had a regular geometric and it was usually rectangular in shape. The courtyard was encircled by chambers, and each chamber was usually fronted by a semi-open area. Behind the attractive regular facades of the courtyard stood stables, which were usually accessed from the corners of the courtyard. Rooms for animal-keepers existed at these entry points. In this way, the travelers could rest in their chambers away from the animal-keepers’ company. Iran countryside caravansariesThe development of caravansaries is correctly regarded as the great victory of Iranian civilization. Also without doubt, which a study of these forsaken structures clearly reveals, is that Iranian architects have devoted their utmost capabilities to create stunning buildings out of simple, rough materials.

Ramsar

Today we go on a sightseeing trip to the wonderful parts of our beloved country. the beautiful city of Ramsar in the province of  Mazandaran. there is not much need to talk about the city because it is a well-known place in Iran. Using a beautiful and spectacular video of the city, we plan to inform you of this wondrous nature. Stay with us. The sky is in turbulence with the fog, there are small and large waterfalls in the mountains, newly opened flowers and a landscape that reminds you of Paradise. The sky is covered with white and dense clouds, and the rivers are as turbulent as ever.
We will talk about all the seasons in this city; from the white color of the winter to the warmth of autumn, from spring green to summer heat, and at the end we talk about the sea. After enjoying the tranquil scenery, we will go to the mountains and watch the colorful pine forests from above. The mountains that are covered in green, and clouds that are undoubtedly one of the most recurring scenes you’ve ever seen. The colorful sky at sunset is yet another glimpse of this nature. Do not hesitate to watch this beautiful presentation.
Ramsar

Tabriz

Tabriz The third largest city in Iran, which has a special place in the history and economy of Iran. The historic and prestigious center of East Azarbaijan province has seen a series of ups and downs and has seen various incidents. Once upon a time, it was a small village near Sahand Mountains and for a period of time, it was once the capital of Iran. Tabriz in Iran has been dubbed the “Top City” because of its popularity in utilizing the facilities of today’s world. A land that has always tried to maintain the quality of urban citizenship along with preserving its cultural and historical roots. The features of the city of Tabriz Iran, like the unique historical and contemporary monuments, the eye-catching nature of Azerbaijan, the cultural and ethnic characteristics of its people, unique souvenirs and crafts have led us to introduce the city and its attractions properly. Tabriz in Iran is renowned for its traditional and modern markets and the high-quality goods it offers. Tabriz is a historic city with many ancient monuments such as Blue Mosque, Azerbaijan Museum, and many others. Tabriz in Iran has handicrafts and precious souvenirs, among which the carpet and leather of Tabriz attract most passengers. The city of Tabriz is located in a province with many natural attractions, such as Kandovan village and Arasbaran forest you cannot leave Tabriz without seeing them.Tabriz

Ali-Sadr cave :

Convergence of dream and reality

When you read Jules Verne’s “Twenty Thousand Leagues under the Sea” you find yourself caught in-between reality and dream. Ali-Sadr cave is the exact place that really helps you turn your dreams into vivid realities. It is the largest aqueous cave in the world and it can be definitely named the most distinctive tourism brand of Hamedan.

Ali-Sadr cave


This marvelous cave was discovered in 1963, in the 1970s it was used as a tourist site for the first time with the efforts of “Abdullah Hajilu”, the head of Hamedan’s Mountaineering Council.

Ali-Sadr cave

It is one of the most spectacular natural sites in Iran and also in the world, because of its large rivers and long aqueducts which are spread all over the cave. It is a unique geological phenomenon, only a few caves in the world such as “Moulis Cave” in France, “Knight’s Cave” and “Boukan’s Cave” in Australia can equal its splendid qualities. The water from the cave is quite drinkable but there are no fish or such found in this particular cave.

Ali-Sadr cave


The temperature remains consistent throughout the year and the water is very translucent to the degree that one can see its depth up to ten meters. The river’s depth varies from ten meters to fourteen meters in some parts. The cave’s water originates from underground water springs, gradual spattering and oozing of water from the roof and walls of the cave which in turn are supplied from regular rainfalls. The cave is about 75 kilometers north of Hamedan. It has borrowed its name from a neighboring village.Ali-Sadr cave

Ali Sadr cave on Map:

Art in the hands of pottery experts (Lalejin)

Pottery has been handed down from generation to generation in Lalin. This is their ancient and traditional art. The products have got good quality and the materials used are good enough to some extent.Lalejin, City of Pottery


Lalejin, City of Pottery

The magnificent landscapes from the hills of Hekmataneh and the palaces of Laodicea are the trademarks of Hamedan. Pottery is still popular in this province and has made it the most important source of income throughout the region. There are around 550 workshops in Hamedan, namely 30 workshops in Malayer, 17 workshops in Turkana, 19 workshops in Razan, 1000 workshops in Laljin, 3 workshops in Dahmamenne, 3 workshops in Dahabardahang, 14 workshops in Nahavand and 56 workshops in Assad Abad. A total of 2408 workshops. More than 6296 people are working in these workshops and are engaged in the production of pottery.

Lalejin, City of Pottery


The most important pottery production center in Hamedan province is Lalejin. Lalin pottery has a worldwide reputation, it is the capital of Iran’s pottery. Lalejin is one of the northern cities in Hamedan province, Based on the census done in2006, Lalejin has a population of 14,724. In this city, the art of Pottery is passed on from generation to generation. The young have continued to inherit the heritage of their fathers. The city has 850 pottery workshops and 250 stores, so in turn, more than 20% of the province’s exports to Hamedan is covered as such.

Lalejin, City of Pottery


From the time human beings got a decent understanding of the universe and moved from nomadic life to sedentism, clay accompanied him. We can say that from the ninth millennia B.C, clay and pottery have been with Homo sapiens all over the world. Homo sapiens began paying more attention to storing food and water and discovered the viscosity and malleability of clay and began making potteries in different shapes. From that time onwards, pottery was gradually developed and made widespread throughout the universe. Lalejin is renowned as Iran’s capital of pottery and from 2017 it has been registered by the brand ‘the Universal City of Clay’.

Lalejin, City of Pottery


Some of the locals believe the name of the city can be dated back to the Genghis Khan (1162-1227) era. According to them when Genghis Khan’s army passed from Hamedan and entered the present city of Lalejin, they dispatched some of the city’s people to China so that they learn pottery from them. These people returned to Lalejin after learning the craft and since then the city bore the name “Lalejin”. This small but beautiful city is located in Hamedan’s north at a distance of 25 kilometers. It is considered to be one of the important sites for tourist attraction in the Hamedan province.Lalejin, City of Pottery


Due to the historical and cultural background of Hamedan, the province is currently one of the most important centers of expert artisans and artists in Iran, more than 150 cases of handicraft professions are active in Hamedan. For example Pottery, ceramics, woodworks, leather production, carpets, traditional sewing, traditional footwear, stonemasonry, traditional knitwear. These are mostly done by locals. According to the latest statistics, the number of workshops in this province is around 22401 still active, with 43646 personnel altogether. Up to now, 21 of these handicraft professions have been nationally registered.

Lalejin on Map:

Kermanshah

Kermanshah is located in the middle of the Zagros Mountains and it has always been considered by people from the Stone Age for its weather, mountainous nature and the presence of sanctuaries and natural caves.
In terms of remnants of prehistoric settlements, Kermanshah is one of the important regions in Iran and Western Asia. The earliest works of human habitation in Kermanshah go back to the Paleolithic period which includes several stone shaped axes found in the Gakia region and the west of Harsin. These works are at least 200,000 years old. Significant works have been discovered from the Stone Age in the caves of Kermanshah, most of them in Mesopotamian and Neolithic periods.Kermanshah


Anahita Temple

Anahita Temple is the largest stone building in Iran after Persepolis. It is considered to be one of the ancient monuments of the BC era and is located in Kanarek, Kermanshah Province. According to historical documents, this temple was used as a temple to seek the respect and protection of the goddess of water, Anahita. After the advent of Islam in Iran, questions were raised as to how the temple had managed to endure for so long. This great monument dates back to the Achaemenid, Parthian, and Sassanian periods.

Fash Mirage is one of the most beautiful natural attractions of Cannavaro, located 10 kilometers southwest of the city. The mirage is about 1645 meters above sea level. It is composed of several springs stemming from the Zagros Mountains. The agricultural water in the whole village comes from this particular mirage. Visar and Bayjan are among the most important rivers that originate from this Mirage. Visar River flows through the village and it is mostly used for irrigation gardens, eventually, it flows into the Bayjan River. This river is used to water agricultural lands nearby. Like all other mirages, this one, in particular, has been created from the limestone formation of the region.

Anahita Temple


Tekyeh Moaven al-Molk

Tekyeh Moaven al-Molk goes back to the Qajar period, around 114 years ago. This building is a mourning site located in Haddad-e-Adel Street, in Kermanshah. Old people still know the neighborhood with its old name, Abshooran.

Tekyeh Moaven al-Molk


Kermanshah’s market

Kermanshah’s market is one of the main sections of the city and one of the largest indoor markets in Iran. The market is a proper tourist attraction. In this market, you can buy local clothing, souvenirs, and handicrafts from the Kermanshah Province.

Kermanshah’s market


Zagros Paleolithic Museum

Zagros Paleolithic Museum is a prehistoric art site, one of the world’s best-known museums. It is considered to be the first Middle Eastern Paleolithic Museum. The museum is located in the Modaress Street in Kermanshah. It was founded in 2007 by Fereydoun Biglari and Moradi Bitoni. It includes a collection of tools and human bones from the Paleolithic periods in Iran and other countries.
The oldest piece of work in the museum is the tools that have been discovered in the Khorasan River from nearly a million years ago. Also in the museum are Moulages from the Neanderthal-human skull and the intelligent man and also images rebuilt from the Stone Age hunters.

Zagros Paleolithic Museum


Shafei Mosque

Shafei Mosque is a Sunni Mosque in the city of Kermanshah. It is located in the Kermanshah Market, established in 1324. This mosque leads to the Janshir Square on the one hand, and on the other to the market. It was bought by a number of Sunni benefactors under the leadership of the late Hajj Molasid Hussein Mas’udi. Today, prayers will be held only in the new mosque built alongside the old one.

Shafei Mosque


Taq Boston

Taq Boston is a collection of rocks and stones from the Sassanid period that is located in Iran’s Taq Boston neighborhood located northwest of Kermanshah. It was built in the third century and has a great artistic and historical value.

Taq Boston


Bam-e Kermanshah

Bam-e Kermanshah is located in the northern part of Kermanshah. it is one of the largest and most beautiful tourist parks in Kermanshah and Iran, located near Taq Boston. In this park, two artificial waterfalls have been built alongside with a building as a memorial for anonymous martyrs.

Bam-e Kermanshah


Flower garden

Kermanshah can be named after Isfahan as the second city to have a flower garden. It is one of the most unique attributes a city can have. An area of 5 hectares, home to 4,000 species of flowers. Four gardens of Iranian, Italian, French and Japanese flowers. It is a beautiful and spectacular region in the spring and summer seasons.

Flower garden


Sadaf Birds Garden

Sadaf Birds Garden is the largest in the Middle East and it is equipped with a boarding hospital for birds.
90% of the birds are imported from South America and East Asia, one the most important species in the garden is a black swan alongside a host of different chicken and cocks. It has 30 thousand birds and 130 species, of which 90% of them are foreign birds and 10% are Iranian birds.

Sadaf Birds Garden


Sahneh, the capital of Iran’s mystical music

The city is located on the road from Kangavar to Behistun. Throughout the streets of this city, Platanus trees give a special freshness to the environment.
The city and its people are all about music, it is considered to be the capital of mystical music in Iran. Most of Iran’s Tanburists have come from this city.
SAHNE


Behistun complex

A World Heritage Site from Achaemenian Era in Kermanshah. A somewhat unique set of artifacts have been found in this particular site. Behistun Inscription and Relief are just the tips of the iceberg. A multilingual inscription and rock relief which goes back to the Achaemenid period.
Behistun complex


Taq-e Gara

Taq-e Gara is a stone structure located on the road from Kermanshah to Sarpol-e Zahab. It is essentially an arch made of stone blocks. The walls are carved with geometric patterns.
Taq-e Gara


Ghar Parau

Ghar Parau is the name of a cave in the Parau Mountain, located 12 km northeast of Kermanshah, between Taq-e Boston and Behistun Mountains. The cave was discovered 40 years ago. It was then the largest vertical cave in the world, which is why at the time they called it the Everest of caves.
Ghar Parau

Hashilan Wetland

Hashilan Wetland is located about 30 km northwest of Kermanshah. There are 110 small and large islands in the area with an area of approximately 100 square meters to about one hectare. During winter and on rainy days, due to the increased water, some of them are hidden.
Hashilan Wetland


Kanduleh village

Kanduleh village, a remnant of the Buyid dynasty
Kanduleh has located 52 km from Sahneh and 75 km from the center of Kermanshah, in the district of Dinner.
Kanduleh village


Hajj village

Hajj village, exceptional architecture
An exceptional village with exceptional architecture, a destination of many tourists every year. The village is a sight to see, from its step shape formation to the natural wonders that are in the vicinity.
Hajj village


Quri Qala

Quri Qala is one of the most beautiful and most valuable water caves in the world, it is 65 million years old. The cave was found with the efforts of English and French Speleologists and Zoologists when they came to find the bats living in the surrounding forests.
Quri Qala

Dalani

One of the interesting areas of tourism in the province of Kermanshah is the recreational area of Dālānī, good weather with beautiful waterfalls and natural scenery which attracts tourists every year.
Dalani

Semnan

Semnan is one of the cities of Iran located in the south of the Alborz Mountains. The city has beautiful historic attractions along with natural attractions. Semnan is one of the cities which has an interesting history. One worth telling.
Semnan is bound from the east to the cities of Damghan and Shahrud, from north to Dergizin, Mahdishahr, and Shahmirzad, and from the west to Sorkha. Its distance from Tehran is 216 km and it is connected to the Tehran-Mashhad railway and has two airports. Semnan is the most populous city in Semnan province. The climate of Semnan is dry and moderate, and its people are Aryan and speak Persian.
Semnan has 7 old famous neighborhoods. These neighborhoods are Sanjana (Sanjana), Latibar or Sister, Hajj or current Jihad, Nassar, Zavagan, Kush Mahan, Kadivar, Omranko, and Malhi.
There are mines of gypsum, salt, zeolite, bentonite, celestine around the city. One of the most important sources of underground resources in Semnan is the oil wells of Khourian Dalazian in the south of the city. The minerals found in these mines are: gypsum, salt, iron ore, carcasses, limestone, ornamental stones, porcelain, coal, sodium sulfate, mica, bentonite, zeolite, kaolin, bukist, industrial soil, silica, dolomite, feldspar, Turquoise, Celestine, lead, marble, travertine, fluorine and manganese.
Semnan has been the Iranian Space Center since the beginning of 1971. The aerospace industry is located 45 kilometers south-east of Semnan, it has an air base and also 80 kilometers south-east of the city there is a space base that launched the Hope satellite and other long-range missiles. Since 2008, the road leading to the air base has been named Hope Boulevard. Also, the Semnan Space Base is called the Imam Khomeini Space Base since May 15, 2012.
Semnan’s congregation is considered to be a very old and monumental building in the city. Over time, there have been many changes done to the place, but today there are works from the Seljuk and Timurid periods on display. The researchers believe that the mosque was built in the first century AH on the ruins of a fire temple. The mosque has had great value and credibility in history from a religious, cultural and social perspective. The architectural style of this building conforms to the style of Azeri architecture.

Semnan


Forty Girls tower

Forty Girls tower: In the middle of the Hakim Allahi Street and on the way to Mahalt Salat, there is an ancient, semi-ruined old tower, called the tower of forty girls or simply “forty girls”. People believe that the tower was made by forty girls who had deprived themselves of worldly attributes. The fire temple dates back to a time before Islam.

Forty Girls tower


Semnan’s Seljuk Minaret

Semnan’s Seljuk Minaret: This minaret, which is one of the most beautiful Seljuk periodic minarets, is located in the northeastern corner of the congregation, next to the underground shrine. It is also known as the Minaret of the congregation. The height of the minaret is around 31.20 meters and the width is considered to be around 25.75 meters. The underground shrine is 5.5 meters from the minaret and due to that, the lower part is not visible. The surrounding area of the mosque’s adjacent minaret is more than five meters.

Semnan’s Seljuk Minaret


The tomb of Pir Najm Al-din

The tomb of Pir Najm Al-din: This tomb belongs to Pir Najm al-Din Dadbakhsh just as the name suggests. There is no record regarding this individual’s background but he is considered to be one of the national commanders during the Mongol invasion.The tomb is considered to be one of the works from the Mongol period, it includes a porch, shrine, and a dome. Due to the fact that it is located on the street right now, there is no space regarded as a yard in the tomb.

The tomb of Pir Najm Al-din


Saro castles

Saro castles: 10 km north-east of Semnan, at the mountainous point named Saro, there are two very strong and intrusive castles that are remarkable in their own way and worthy of research. These castles are located on either side of Kalateh or Saro Farm.
The northern castle has been somewhat ruined and uninhabited due to the passage of time and occurrence of natural disasters and sabotage to some extent, but the structure stands strong.

Saro castles


Koushmagan castle

Koushmagan castle: Three kilometers to the west of Semnan there are three neighborhoods known as Koushmagan, Zahavan, and Kadivar, and the sum of these three neighborhoods is called the Mahallat neighborhoods.
According to the information provided, these neighborhoods are considered as the most ancient neighborhoods in Semnan. The name Kushmaghan was originally Kushk Meghan, but over time it became known as Kushmaghan.

Koushmagan castle


Shah Abbasi Caravanserai

Shah Abbasi Caravanserai: In Professor Motahari Street near the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps of Semnan, there is a caravanserai from the Safavid period, known as Robot Shah Abbasi. The courtyard is rectangular in with a length of 32.30 meters and a width of 26.5 meters.
The two northern and southern sides of the caravanserai have two equal porosities and they are similar to a curved arch, on each side of the porches, there are six small porches with curved arches that are as high as half a meter above the courtyard.

Shah Abbasi Caravanserai


Darband Cave

Darband Cave: The largest cave in the province, located 21 km north of Semnan and three kilometers south of Shahmirzad, overlooking Darband valley. This cave is located in the middle of a beautiful rocky mountain called LaHood, the wide and lush valley of Darband is widespread below it.
The entrance of the cave is 75.2 meters in width and 1.35 in height. The interior of the cave is relatively simple and without complexity. The cave’s space is oval shaped, with a length of 91 meters, the widest part of which is 36 meters and the tallest point, the roof is 20 meters.

Darband Cave


Parvar Reservation Area

Parvar Reservation Area: This area is located north of Semnan city and has an area of 37 thousand hectares. Major animals in this area include Partridge, Caspian snowcock, See-see Partridge, Sandgrouse, Cheetah, Wolf, Jackal, Wild goat, Panther, Bear, Pig, Red deer, and Marten. The hunting season in this area is between October and late December.

Parvar Reservation Area


Imam Khomeini mosque

Imam Khomeini mosque: This mosque (formerly Soltani) is located in the center of Semnan and is one of the most important and beautiful monuments of Semnan. The mosque has four large entrances from the north, and northwest. In the northwest, it opens to a long corridor, which is at the bottom of the lane.
The doors to the north, south, and east have vestibule corridors and corridors. On top of the northern and eastern gardens, there are a beautiful gypsum mogarnas decorated with two tiled two-story chairs on each side. In the northern, southeastern, and eastern oysters, dome bricks are observed with numerous pavilions with a tiled lacquer.

Imam Khomeini mosque


Semnan Market

Semnan Market: This market was built about 180 years ago, during the reign of the Qajar dynasty. The market was built in traditional Iranian architecture with brick, and brick ceilings tailored to the specific weather conditions of the desert region. it is the largest shopping center for commercial goods. In the past, the general market of the city was considered to be the Sheikh Ala’d al-Dawlah market.

Semnan Market


Nassar Bath

Nassar Bath: This bath is located in the market. It is about three centuries old and is one of the buildings from the Safavid period. This building was built in 1118 AH during the reign of Shah Abbas by Haji al-Haramin Aqa Maleki.

Nassar Bath


Shur Ab mineral water spring

Shur Ab mineral water spring: The spring water is from a series of aqueducts located in the northwest of Sorkheh. People in the summer go there by driving along the route five kilometers from the city of Sorkheh to the site of the Shahab aqueduct.
This water is rich in sulfur. It is used to treat headaches and aching eyes and one cannot stay in long since the gases released are somewhat toxic.

Shur Ab mineral water springSemnan weather: 
SEMNAN WEATHER