What are the conditions for obtaining Iranian citizenship and permanent residence in Iran?
When we raise the question of Iranian citizenship, at first we need to know the definition of citizenship and residency and their differences, in order not to get confused.
Definition of Citizenship:
Nationality is a political, legal, and spiritual relationship that links a person as being a legal member of a sovereign state or in other words belonging to a nation.
Under Article 979 of the Civil Code: Persons who have the following conditions can acquire Iranian citizenship:
1. Have reached the age of 18 years.
2. Two to five years, consecutively or differently, have legally resided in Iran.
3. To have done the military service required in their respective origin country.
4. Condemned of no major offense or non-political crime in any country.
In the case of the second paragraph of this article, a period of residence abroad in service of the government of Iran is counted the same as living in Iran.
Article 980 of the Civil Code: In addition, those who have served or contributed to the public affairs of Iran as well as those who have Iranian descent and have Iranian children, or have scientific authorities and expertise in public affairs in case they are to apply for the citizenship of the Islamic Republic of Iran, If the government considers them to be eligible, they may be admitted to Iran subject to the approval of the Cabinet of Ministers, without observing the condition of residence.
But what are the steps to obtain citizenship?
The steps are taken to obtain the citizenship of the Islamic Republic of Iran:
Individuals who seek to become a citizen of the Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran can apply at the Department of State’s Citizenship Office or the offices of foreign nationals and immigrants throughout the country.
Limitations on individuals who study Iranian citizenship:
Article 982 of the Civil Code: Individuals who study Iranian citizenship benefit from all rights granted to Iranians but cannot reach the following authorities:
1. The Presidency and his deputies
2. Membership in the Guardian Council and the Presidency of the Judicial system of Iran
3. Serve as a minister or deputy minister
4. Membership in the Islamic Consultative Assembly
5. Membership in the provincial and city councils
6. Recruitment at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, as well as any post or political mission
8. The highest command category in the army, The Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps and the police
9. The establishment of important intelligence and security posts
Before defining permanent residence, we must define the term, alien:
Definition of alien:
In any country, in relation to a citizen which is a person who has the nationality of that country, there are those who, depending on whether they have the nationality of another government, or because of the non-citizenship of any country, are subject to the particular government as an alien.
According to Article 4 of the Statue of Ordibehesht 19, 1310, “the residence of foreign nationals in Iran is twofold: temporary residence and permanent residence. A permanent resident is a foreigner on a permanent residence in Iran, otherwise, the foreigner’s stay in Iran will be temporary residence”
If any of the following conditions are met and after the consent of the police, a permanent residence permit will be issued to the applicant:
A. The applicant has 5 years of legal or continuous legal residence in Iran and has reached the age of 18 at the time of applying.
B. The applicant has two or more years of legal or continuous legal residence in Iran, and his/her highest scientific qualifications or profession or his expertise in manufacturing and development has been approved by the authorities.
C. The applicant has two or more years of legal or continuous legal residence in Iran, and his worthy service to the public affairs in Iran has been approved by the authorities.
D. The applicant has an Iranian wife or an Iranian child.
E. The applicant has a two-year record of continuous legal residence in Iran and has invested in Iran’s manufacturing and development affairs, approved by the authorities.
F. The applicant has two or more years of legal or continuous legal residence in Iran, and his personal income or pension rights have been approved by one of the authorized banks in Iran.
Private International Law Book Compiled by Dr. Behshid Arfa Nia
Collection of Iranian Civil Rights Laws
1. Private International Law Compiled by Dr. Behshid Arfahnia p. 43
2. Private International Law Compiled by Dr. Behshid Arfahnia p. 184
3. Private International Law Written by Dr. Behshid Arfa Nia, p. 201
4. In accordance with Article 6 of the Amendment to the 1350 Law on the Entry and Residence of Foreign Citizens/Article 5 of the Administrative Procedure Act, dated 3.12.25/Article 3 of the Law on Entry and Residence of Foreign Citizens approved in 13