Martian Mountains in Chabahar

The Martian mountains of Chabahar give an amazing view of Iran that evokes an image of planet Mars in one’s mind. The road leading you to the Martian Mountains is one of the most beautiful roads in Iran. Going to the Martian Mountains, you walk into an area that has a great reputation for its sky sight and offers a spectacular view. The presence of a tourist camp near these mountains makes it easy to stay comfortable and composed.
Did you know you can see planet Mars in Iran? Just come to the Chabahar Martian Mountains; a strange and wonderful place that invites you to a space trip. These mountains, which are also known as Miniature Mountains, are considered to be a tourist attraction. If you want to know what we mean by Martian mountains and what attraction we are talking about, come along with us and get to know everything about this attraction.

Martian Mountains

Pamenar Village

Pamenar Village is like a stretch between land and water and has a unique nature. Sheehan Lake (Dez Lake), with its small and big islands, has created a beautiful view alongside the village. By visiting this village, you can see the world’s fifth largest dam with beautiful attractions such as the Shadab Castle and its historic cemetery. Pamenar is considered to be a tourist attraction, one of many in this particular region.

We go to southern Iran and get 40 km outside of the beautiful city of Dezful, and take a road of green velvet hills in order to get to our destination. We are supposed to reach a village which covers 60 hectares of land, at the foot of a minaret that is steeped from hard and polished rocks of Zagros. In the village, there are no traditional houses, but there are simple houses with small porches, so in a way, it actually has some kind of a traditional feel to it.

The nature in this region is equal to heaven in that it drives you away from reality and makes you dizzy. If you go to the Pamenar Village in winter and stand beside the lake, migratory birds fly in front of you and you can witness the beauty of it firsthand.

Behind the village school, there is a host of white rocks that seem to be empty. Take your shoes off and walk over to reach a stone bed that serves as the border of the village. At night, if the sky is clear which it never is, you can see the town and its light. Pamenar Village is also the destination of people from the city of Dezful.

Amusements and sights in and around Pamenar Village

Sheehan Lake (Dez Dam)

Pamenar Village is located between the two Karkheh and Dez dams and this has caused the natural beauty of this area to be unique in all aspects. Dez Dam, also known as Sheehan Lake, is located north of Dezful and behind the mountains. The lake is artificially constructed on the river, which covers an area of over 6,000 hectares. The water originates from Aligudarz Mountains in Lorestan and Markazi province (Arak). The lake has varying depths in different parts but reaches 50 meters in its deepest.

Lake Sheehan has a number of small islands that give it a unique beauty. The largest lake is about 60,000 square meters. The islands are full of trees such as, Christ’s thorn jujube, Persian turpentine, Weeping willow, and Almond trees which are native to the area and are abundantly seen throughout the region. Small animals such as foxes and rabbits live on these islands along with birds such as See-see partridge and Partridge itself plus various seabirds. In some unknown parts of this particular region, leopards have also been seen.


Imagine the beautiful village with all its beauty in the middle of the day under the golden light of the sunset, without any exaggeration, it is dreamy, and it can be a perfect destination for those looking for the best scenery for photography. But everything does not end here! At night if the sky is clear, the blanket of the tiny stars can be another subject for taking pictures.

Castle’s Cemetery

Another spectacular attraction is the small cemetery located below the castle in this region. In this cemetery, there are standing stones and each one has been carved out to tell the story of the dead. They tell us of men and women who have come before and have passed in this particular land. Some were dancers, potters, farmers, and painters.

Shadab Castle

Next, to Pamenar Village, there is a smooth and polished sidewalk which goes on forever. It is located 30 km outside of Pamenar on the walls of the castle. The castle itself was built in the Sassanid era and covers an area of 12,000 square meters, but there is no accurate information about its use and features. It is said that during the first Pahlavi period and until the early ’30s this castle was a defensive wall against robbers and looters, and it was even residential until 25 years ago, but its usage changed over time, and now it is used as a sort of barn. The castle has been built in the heart of a mountain and it is comprised of multiple tunnels. These small halls and caves are called “Kat” in the local language.

Among the locals, the castle is considered as a place that legendary people once lived. The castle has two entrances, one of which is very hard and difficult to go through but the other one is very suitable for tourists and locals alike. It is said that the same harshness of the castle path has led to the victory of the people of this area against the looters. If you look down from above, you will see a magnificent convent that is created of almond trees and is an ideal place for adventure.

The best season for visiting the
Pamenar Village

Spring: In the spring, Pamenar is a paradise on earth, which makes it obligatory for everyone to see it, but if you want to see the beauty of it in its natural state be sure to come before April.
Summer: A trip to the south is not recommended in the summer; however, if you are so eager, you should be varied of the restless heart.
Autumn: In this season it is quite windy, but there is no longer any green and beautiful trees.
Winter: The best time to travel to Pamenar Village in winter is late in March.

Dez Dam and its benefits

It is a concrete dam built during the reign of Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi on the Dez River, located northeast of Andimeshk. The construction of the dam, which took place in collaboration with American and Italian companies, began in 1960 and ended in 1963. The dam, with a final capacity of 3.3 billion cubic meters, helps lower water levels and plays an important role in controlling its flooding. Dez dam with a height of 203 meters at its time of construction was known as the sixth and now 50th largest dam in the world.

The Dez River is one of the most prominent rivers in Iran. For decades, due to its high level of flooding, a dam was built to help the people of the region with the drought that was plaguing them. At the time of the construction of the dam, precise channels were carried out in cooperation with the Iran-California Company to ensure water that is behind the dam goes through the same channels to the fields, not only improving existing agricultural lands but also bringing about revival to another 240 hectares of various lands in this particular region.

Anzali Lagoon

Anzali Lagoon one of the most valuable natural attractions in Bandar-e Anzali city. This wetland is home to Indian lotus which is considered to be a unique flower. Boat riding and going to local restaurants around the lagoon can be quite fun. This wetland is the ultimate destination for rare and migratory birds.
We want to take you to the northern parts of the country and talk to you about the Anzali Lagoon, which shines on the southwest coast of the Caspian Sea. You will surely be tempted to see pictures of the Anzali Lagoon and hope that someday you get the chance to see it up close. It is beautiful but at the same time, the importance of it in the economy of the region is unparalleled.

Mazichal village

Mazichal village is the fog in the region and the spectacular clouds of this climate create a strange sort of daydream.
The forest is pristine, the mountains are strenuous, clouds thick, lush plains and colorful woods plus the mountain winds which are ever present. Sometimes the rain, in the pleasant silence of nature, makes you wonder as if you were part of nature itself.

Most people in Iran love the cities and villages in the northern parts of the country because of its beautiful nature, which is why most of the time they travel there. Although the number of these villages is so high that it is not possible to visit all of them.
Today, we plan to make a virtual trip to one of these villages and plan for a real trip to this beautiful, unique countryside.

Hawraman Village

Hawraman Village beautiful village has a spectacular architecture and design and it is located in the southeast of Kurdistan province.
The word Hawraman consists of two parts, “Ahura” and “Man”, meaning the land of Ahura.
The people were Zoroastrians before Islam came along, and the remnants of their fire temples are still visible in the region.
They speak “Hurami” which is an old dialect that is the symbol of pride and veracity for the people living in this village.
Their customs and rituals plus the unique music that they have combined with the excellent architecture of the village show the rich culture of this land.

Makhunik village

Makhunik village is famous for having people with short stature. Due to the architecture of this village, many stories and legends have been formed around it. Here you can get acquainted with the unique culture and lifestyle of the locals.
Throughout history, humans have made stories. That is why some people believed almost anything. This particular village is known as the Lilliput village, but in fact, it is a historical village that is 400 years old in the southern Khorasan province. Many people consider it as one of the seven most amazing villages in the world, and many people come here to see the little ones; but this is not the only reason for its reputation because there are other factors at work, such as the architecture of the houses and culture and customs of these people. We are going to uncover the mysteries and secrets of this particular village and get to know more about it.

Makhunik village is famous for having people with short stature. Due to the architecture of this village, many stories and legends have been formed around it. Here you can get acquainted with the unique culture and lifestyle of the locals.
Throughout history, humans have made stories. That is why some people believed almost anything. This particular village is known as the Lilliput village, but in fact, it is a historical village that is 400 years old in the southern Khorasan province. Many people consider it as one of the seven most amazing villages in the world, and many people come here to see the little ones; but this is not the only reason for its reputation because there are other factors at work, such as the architecture of the houses and culture and customs of these people. We are going to uncover the mysteries and secrets of this particular village and get to know more about it.

Kandovan Village

Kandovan Village is One of the few manmade cliff dwellings in the world where people still live the traditional life. The special atmosphere in the Village is mesmerizing, mostly because it is so archaic. People’s lifestyle in this particular village is different from many other villages in Iran. The climate, natural environment, and the mountainous environment is another reason to travel to this amazing village.
Due to the geographical condition of Iran, there is diversity in every aspect of life. The vegetation, animals, and climate alongside with architectural, agricultural and lifestyle aspects. The specific characteristics of each region have affected its architecture and construction, making the north, south, center and mountainous regions of Iran different in terms of shape in proportion to their surroundings. Of course, today, due to new architectural methods, most of the buildings in our country have become similar in appearance. The chaos of luxury houses, shopping malls, hotels, has spread to most of the cities in Iran but hearing that people are still living traditionally and without luxuries and glamor of today’s life is very strange and interesting.

Kandovan Village
We want to talk about a village that is spectacular and interesting in every aspect. Our destination is the historic Kandovan village; a vibrant exhibition of life among rocks and, the birthplace of man and nature, and the best example of companionship and simplicity.
East Azerbaijan province is full of wonders and attractions; from the monuments of Tabriz, Maragheh and Jolfa to the rivers, forests and mountainous forests that immerse the province in beauty and glory. Meanwhile, Kandovan has another story. A village in Osku County that goes back quite a lot, and a special architecture that makes it a wonder.
Kandovan village is located on the slopes of Mount Sultan Daghi, in the heart of Sahand mountain range. This village was created over time due to lava and molten materials left over from the volcanic eruptions of Sahand Mountain, and of course human interference. Kandovan is one of the few villages in Iran and the world, along with Cappadocia villages in Turkey, Dakota in the United States, and Meymand village in Kerman that have this particular form of architecture. However, today only the two villages of Meymand and Kandovan have residents, and the rest are mostly vacant. Kandovan has a height of 2,200 meters from the sea level, Kandovan River flows along the village and it is part of the Sahand Rural District.
Kandovan village was registered on the list of Iran’s national monuments due to its architecture and the lifestyle of its people with the registration number 1857, on May 15, 1997.

Kandovan Village

Shushtar Historical Hydraulic System

It is Iran’s 10th cultural heritage site which is also listed on UNESCO’s World Heritage Sites.
An island city that is considered to have the largest industrial complex irrigation system in the world, before the industrial revolution.
A work of art from the Achaemenid period.
The irrigation system is considered to be a masterpiece of engineering in the world, given that it was the first at that particular time. Iran has quite a lot of history, each special in its own. The Achaemenid period was particularly remembered for its focus on engineering and architecture. Most people think that Persepolis is the only thing left from the Achaemenid period but there are other historic sites that are just as fascinating.
This historical site is located in the south of Iran. Darius I is considered to be the founder of this island city. This astounding structure is located in Khuzestan province. The structure has stayed intact through all these years. Simply put it is a reminder of Iran’s rich history.

The site is easily reachable and well known in the area. it is a complex irrigation system that dates back to the era of Darius the Great and in 5th century BC.
The Achaemenes and Sassanids built a complex set of dams, barrages, water mills, waterfalls, canals, and tunnels to control the flow of the water in order to make more use of it.
Only some small parts of this complex structure have stood the test of time, but the water coming from the water mills have created beautiful artificial waterfalls that create amazing scenery within the city.
This complex system can be considered as a reminder of how intelligent people were in that time, and it shows that water engineering sciences were quite advanced in that time period. They closed off Karun River and at the same time built a dam over it. Then they managed to raise the surface of the water and level it while sending it to agricultural areas in the province. This was done more than 1700 years ago using the tools available in that time period. This was no easy task.


Citadel of Karim Khan

The citadel of Karim Khan is located in the north-east of Shiraz city. At that time Shiraz was Iran’s capital. It was built as a part of a complex and is named after Karim Khan, it served as his living quarters. In shape, it resembles a medieval fortress. Karim Khan invited the best architects and artists of the time and bought the best materials from other cities and abroad for the construction of the citadel which was quickly constructed.

Citadel of Karim Khan

During the Zand dynasty, Citadel of Karim Khan was used by the king as living quarters. During the Qajar era, it was used as the governor’s seat. The governor ordered the miniatures in the citadel to be renovated. After the fall of the Qajar dynasty, it was converted into a prison and the paintings were plastered over.

Citadel of Karim Khan

The Citadel of Karim Khan is in the center of a compound. It consists of four high walls. The walls are connected by four circular brick towers at a 90-degree angle. Recently, the southern tower has a noticeable lean. Inside the citadel lies the inner court with citrus trees. Each wall is three meters thick at the base and 2.8 meters at the top. The surface of the walls and towers are decorated with the brick in simple, geometric relief pattern which makes you think about design elements on the carpets and kilims. The design of the Citadel of Karim-khan combines military and residential architecture, for example, it was the home of Karim Khan and later on, it was a military center.
Today, this historical and beautiful place is a museum operated by Iran’s Cultural Heritage Organization.

Citadel of Karim Khan

Review by: Masoud Farhad

Countryside Caravansaries

Numerous books have been written about caravansaries, introducing almost every specimen for a deeper, more accurate, understanding of the architecture of Iranian caravansaries. This text focuses on countryside caravansaries. Urban caravansaries, which often occur in combination with bazaars buildings. Countryside caravansaries are built beside desert roads and bear essential differences with urban ones as regards their architectural features, spatial organization, function and environment.

Iran countryside caravansaries
Iran’s location at the heart of the ancient world, as the major link between the orient and the occident. And made the travelling a highly important issue in this country. As powerful centralized government, economic prosperity and flourishing trade depend on safe and comfortable travelling, the Iranians soon come up with various solution in this domain. One such solution was to build and constantly maintain, a multitude of caravansaries throughout the country. Travelers have commented on the vital role of caravansaries and attested to the secure and restful abodes they had offered them against sandstorms, scorching desert heats, snow tempests and brigands.
Caravansaries were commissioned by rulers, governments and benevolent individuals. They were usually built beside busy roads, using locally available materials such as mud, raw bricks, fired bricks and stones, alone or in combination. Water was a vital element in a caravansary’s life and easy access to water played a major role in the choice of its site. A water cistern was built inside or nearby every caravansary.

Iran countryside caravansariesThey were simple and unpretentious buildings. Four long, tall, windowless walls and occasionally two towers in the middle of its long walls, gave the caravansary a fort-like appearance. The building’s only decorated exterior element was it’s distinguishing entrance. Walls had simple arcades. These arcades provided shaded platforms where passerby could rest for a while. At the center of the caravansary was the main courtyard, which had a regular geometric and it was usually rectangular in shape. The courtyard was encircled by chambers, and each chamber was usually fronted by a semi-open area. Behind the attractive regular facades of the courtyard stood stables, which were usually accessed from the corners of the courtyard. Rooms for animal-keepers existed at these entry points. In this way, the travelers could rest in their chambers away from the animal-keepers’ company. Iran countryside caravansariesThe development of caravansaries is correctly regarded as the great victory of Iranian civilization. Also without doubt, which a study of these forsaken structures clearly reveals, is that Iranian architects have devoted their utmost capabilities to create stunning buildings out of simple, rough materials.